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Glaucoma, popularly known as “Eye pressure“, is damage to the optic nerve due to frequent elevations of intraocular pressure. As a result, the visual field of the person gradually narrows. Glaucoma, an insidious disease that makes itself known in the last stages of the disease, can cause serious damage to the optic nerve that cannot be repaired when diagnosed late.
Who is at risk of glaucoma?
People with higher than normal intraocular pressure have a higher risk of developing glaucoma. However, it does not mean that everyone with high intraocular pressure can have glaucoma.
People over the age of 40 have an increased risk of glaucoma.
Glaucoma may be related to genetics. People with a family history of glaucoma are at higher risk of developing it. In other words, one or more genes may be defective and these individuals may become more susceptible to the disease.
Patients with diabetes and hypothyroidism (goiter) are at higher risk of developing glaucoma.
Serious eye injuries can cause elevated intraocular pressure. Other risk factors are retinal detachment, eye tumors, and eye inflammations such as chronic uveitis or iritis. Some eye surgeries may also trigger the development of secondary glaucoma.
The incidence of glaucoma has increased approximately twofold in myopia, which is generally known as farsightedness.
Long-term use of cortisone (as drops, oral or skin ointment, etc.) may lead to the development of secondary glaucoma.
People with these characteristics need to have regular eye examinations for early detection of optic nerve damage.
Causes of glaucoma
The pressure in the eye rises due to the inability to empty the intraocular fluid, which is secreted in the eye and necessary for the nourishment of the eye. The increased intraocular pressure also damages the optic nerve cells.
Symptoms of glaucoma
- Headaches that become evident in the morning
- Blurred vision from time to time
- Seeing luminous rings around lights at night
- Pain around the eyes while watching TV
What factors increase glaucoma risk?
- Having a family history of glaucoma (genetic predisposition)
- Being over 40 years old
- Severe anemia or shocks
- High-low systemic blood pressure (body blood pressure)
- High myopia
- High hyperopia
- Long-term cortisone therapy
- Eye injuries
- Racial factors
Since the risk of developing glaucoma is higher than normal in people with these characteristics, these people should have regular eye examinations for the early diagnosis of damage to the optic nerve.
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